Illegal deforestation is still a serious problem in the Amazon, and the enforcement system remains weak. In this The State of the Amazon, we demonstrate that only 1% of the 421 fines issued by Ibama and Sema in Mato Grosso in 2005-2006 were collected by March 2008. These fines were issued the year following the Curupira Operation against corruption in environmental agencies in the state. The cancellation of fines in areas of different sizes without title deeds also indicates the inadequate enforcement of the law. Suggestions for reducing impunity include maintaining the fines against landholders who deforest illegally and adopting an efficient strategy for collecting these fines.